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高中英语定语从句讲解及练习


来源:深圳培优家教网 日期:2014-01-11

高中英语定语从句讲解及练习

定语从句是高中重点知识,也是高考常考点,大家也不容易掌握,这篇文章主要教你关系代词引导的定语从句
    关系副词引导的定语从句 判断关系代词与关系副词 限制性和非限制性定语从句等内容,有例题讲解
    定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
关系副词有:when, where, why等。

18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句
  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
1who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如:
Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
2whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换)。例如:
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。
3which, that所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如:
A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.
农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
The package (which / that)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于\"介词+ which\"结构,因此常常和\"介词+ which\"结构交替使用。例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
2)that代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和\"介+which\"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略。例如:
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.
他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词
方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。
I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。
  判断改错:
  (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
  (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
  (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
  (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.
  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。
  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one
例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one
例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。
  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词(where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)。

18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句
1)定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如:
This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2)当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如:
Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year.
查理.史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 
我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。
3)非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。例如:He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
     Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。
说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

18.5 介词+关系词
1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
2that前不能有介词。
3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的\"介词+关系词\"结构可以同关系副词when where 互换。例如This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。
   This is the house where I lived two years ago.
   Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?
   Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句
  as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,aswhich可代整个主句,相当于and thisand thatAs一般放在句首,which在句中。例如:
  As we know, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。
    The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。
典型例题 
1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.
A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he
  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。
2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.
A. what B. which C. that D. it
  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。
3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
A. that B. which  C. as  D. it
  答案B. as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:
(1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。
(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。
as 的用法
例1. the same…as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。例如:
   I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 我碰到了跟他一样的麻烦。
例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有\'正如\'例如:
   As we know, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。
   As is known, smoking is harmful to one\'s health.
As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。


18.9 关系代词that 的用法
1)不用that的情况
   a 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如:
    (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
   b 介词后不能用。

例如:We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。
    We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.
2 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
   a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which
   b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which.
   c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。 
   d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that.
   e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:
All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。
Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

 

定语从句

1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace.

A. Which    B. where      C. what       D. in which

2.Do you know the man _______?

A. whom I spoke      B. to who spoke     C. I spoke to     D. that I spoke

3.This is the hotel _______last month.

A. which they stayed           B. at that they stayed

C. where they stayed at         D. where they stayed

4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

A. which       B. that        C. when        D. on which

5.That is the day ______I'll never forget.

A. which     B. on which        C. in which       D. when

6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here.

A. where       B. to which       C. which         D. in which

7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

A. where        B. that         C. which         D. there

8.This is one of the best films _______.

A. that have been shown this year       B. that have shown

C. that has been shown this year        D. that you talked

9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day?

A. about which you talked       B. which you talked

C. about that you talked         D. that you talked

10.The pen ______he is writing is mine.

A. with which         B. in which         C. on which       D. by which

11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy.

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old.

A. to whom       B. on whom        C. with which        D. with whom

13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country?

A. who    B. who's     C. which        D. whose

14.I'm interested in ______you have said. 

A. all that     B. all what      C. that        D. which

15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday.

A. which       B. who        C. what        D. as

16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be.

A. who        B. whom        C. that        D. as

17.He is good at English, ______we all know.

A. that     B. as       C. whom      D. what

18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much.

A. I went with   B. with whom I went   C. with who I went    D.I went with him

19.I don't like ______ as you read.

A. the novels      B. the such novels      C. such novels      D. same novels

20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school.

A. which        B. that        C. whom         D. what

21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing.

A. which        B. that        C. whom        D. who

22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women.

A. them        B. which         C. whom      D. who

23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it.

A. who;/    B./; whom      C. whom;/       D./; who

24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now.

A. whose title     B. its title       C. the title of it     D. the title of that

25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world.

A. for which        B. for that         C. in which         D. what

26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV.

A. that      B. which        C. as       D. it

27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.

A. when; which      B. which; when       C. what; that    D. on which; when

28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong.

A. which        B. whose      C. what       D./

29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting.

A. in which        B. with which        C. that        D. for which

30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly.

A. after which I have looked         B. which I have looked after

C. that I have looked after           D. I have looked after

31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill.

A. why; that     B.that;why      C. for that;that       D.for which;what

32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam.

A.that       B.which      C.for which      D.who

33.That is not the way ______I do it.

A./     B.which      C.for which     D.with which

34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use.

A. all of which   B. either of which    C. both of that        D. both of which

35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago.

A. as was     B. which was      C. as were       D. which

36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them.

A. who      B. which       C. that       D. it

37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph.

A. that      B. which        C. from that       D. from which

38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done.

A. that      B. which      C. who      D. as

39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes.

A. /      B. why      C. when      D. whose

40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.

A. that       B. which    C. it        D. though

41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened?     --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew.

A. what; that      B. what; what       C. which; which       D. that; that

42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with

the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life.

A. when; who    B. that; which       C. which; that      D. when; which

43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing.

A. owns; are    B. owns; is     C. own; is     D. own; are

44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns.

A. followed      B. following       C. to follow     D. that followed

45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn?

A. that    B. /    C. which    D. it

46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house.

A. which; what   B. through which; what   C. through that; what    D. what; that

47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week?

A. this school    B. this the school     C. this school one    D. this school where

48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected.

A. as      B. that      C. what      D. who

49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well.

A. none of them    B. neither of them    C. neither of which    D. none of which

50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up.

A. are being     B. has been      C. had been       D. have been

 

 

 

 

 

参考答案

一. 单项选择  定语从句1~5 A C A B A     6~10 B C C A D     11~15 C B D D A 16~20 D C A B B   21~26 B B B A D D

参考答案及解析

1. A. which用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。

2.C. "和谁讲话”要说speak to sb. 本题全句应为Do you know the man whom I spoke to.。whom是关系代词,作介词to的宾语,可以省略。

3. D. where是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

4. C. when是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。

5.A. which是关系代词,在从句中作forget的宾语。其他几个答案都不能作宾语。

6.C. 解析同第5题。

7. A. 解析见第3题。

8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是films,因此,关系代词that是负数概念,其谓语动词应用复述的被动语态have been shown。如果句中的one前面使用了定冠词the,则the one应该视为先行词。

9. A. “谈到某事物”应说talk about sth.。about是介词,其后要用which作宾语,不能用that。

10. A. with which是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with有"用"的意思,介词之后只能用which,不能用that. with which在定语从句中作状语,即he is writing with a pen.

11. C. in front of which 即in front of a farmhouse. In front of which在从句中作状语.

12. D. with whom引导定语从句.with whom放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer.

13. D. whose引导定语从句,在从句中作主语family的定语.

14. A. that引导定语从句,因为先行词是all,所以只能选用that引导.

15. D. the same……..as是固定用法, as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话中,as作从句的主语.

16. D. such……… as是固定用法,as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as作表语.

17. B. as作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句。这时as所指代的不是主句中某个名词,而往往指代整个主句的含义。as在从句中可以作主语、宾语。从句可放在主句后,也可置于主句前。在本句中,as作宾语.

18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much是主句,with whom I went to the concert是定语从句.with whom放在从句中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming.

19. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。 as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。Such修饰单数名词时,要用such a……..,本题中such books, such直接修饰复数名词.

20. B. things和persons是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时,其关系代词要用that.

21. D. who引导非限制性定语从句,who作从句的主语.

22. C. two thirds of whom 即:two thirds of the 2,000 workers.

23. D. 先行词person后有两个定语从句,第一个从句省略了关系代词whom.因为, whom作从句中met的宾语,可以省略.第二个从句who could do it.who在从句中作主语,不可省略.

24. A. whose title引导非限制性定语从句,whose title也可以说成the title of which

25. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for "以……..而闻名".

26. C. 当先行词被such修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词要用as. As在本从句中作主语.

27. A. 两个先行词the day都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状语,因此要用关系副词when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词spent的宾语,因此要用关系代词which或that来引导定语从句.

28. D. 在way、distance、direction等词后的定语从句中,常用that来代替“in (或其他介词)+which”、when或where,而that常可省略。

29. D. for which在定语从句中作原因状语,可用why 来替代.

30. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句.

31. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的why和that不能随意换位,也不能将that改成because,尽管that这个词在译文中可能有 “因为”的含义。

32. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

33. A. 解释见28题.

34. D. 主句中的two表明不能选A.从句中的are表明不能选B. both of which用来引导非限制性定语从句.

35. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。本题中as作从句的主语.

36. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

37. D.      38. D. 解析见35题.

39. A. he makes是定语从句, 从句前省略了关系代词that.

40. B. which is a bad habit 非限制性定语从句.

41. A. what happened是宾语从句. all 之后that he knew是定语从句.先行词是all,所以关系代词只能用that.

42. D. years是表示时间的名词,用when引导定语从句,是因为when在从句中作时间状语.第二个空选用which,引导一个非限制性定语从句.

43. C. 本句话的定语从句是who own cars. 其先行词是people,因此,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数的own。本句话主句的主语是The number of指“…..的数目”,是单数概念。因此,主句的谓语动词要用is。

44. D. that followed是定语从句,关系代词that在从句中作主语。

45. A. 先行词gas被only修饰,关系代词要用that,而不用which。

46. B. through which引导定语从句,through which即through the hole,在定语从句中作状语。What引导的是see的宾语从句,并作从句的主语。

47. B. 为便于理解,改写本句话:This is the school that some Germanfriends visited last week. 不难看出,作表语的the school是先行词。that引导了定语从句,因为that同时又作visited的宾语,所以被省略了。其它选项结构不对。     48. A. 解释见35题。

49. C. 因为是two ballpens, 并且定语从句的谓语writes是单数概念。因此,C是正确选项。

50. B. 本句话中,主句的主语是all,为抽象概念。因此,其谓语应用单数的has been。关系代词that引导定语从句,并在从句中作主语。

 

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