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高中英语倒装句讲解


来源:深圳培优家教网 日期:2014-01-11

倒装句

一、 倒装句之全部倒装

  全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:

  1)here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run.

  There goes the bell.

  Then came the chairman.

  Here is your letter.

  2)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。

  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

  Ahead sat an old woman.

  注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:Here he comes. Away they went.

 

二、倒装句之部分倒装

  部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

  1)句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。

  Never have I seen such a performance.

  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.

  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

  当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

  注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。

  I have never seen such a performance.

  The mother didn‘t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

  典型例题

  1)Why can‘t I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room

  A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

  C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

  答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

  2)Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn‘t man know  D. did man know

  答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。改写为正常语序为, Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。

 

三、以否定词开头作部分倒装

  如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than

  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

  典型例题

  No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

  A. the game began      B. has the game begun

  C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

  答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

  注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。

  Not only you but also I am fond of music.

 

四、so neither nor作部分倒装

  表示“也”、“也不” 的句子要部分倒装。

  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

  If you won‘t go, neither will I.

  典型例题

  -Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

  -I don‘t know, _____.

  A. nor don‘t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don’t care neither  D. I don‘t care also

  答案:B. nor为增补意思“也不关心”,因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don‘t 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。

  注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为“的确如此”。

  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

  -It‘s raining hard.   -So it is.

 

五、only在句首要倒装的情况

  Only in this way, can you learn English well.

  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

  如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装

  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

 

六、as though 引导的倒装句

  as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。

  注意:

  1)句首名词不能带任何冠词。

  2)句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,  随实义动词一起放在主语之前。

  Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

  注意:

让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

考点!!!

考点1; “强调否定状语的倒装句”的基本用法

“强调否定状语的倒装句”是指为了强调句子中针对全句的否定状语, 将其置于句首所引起部分倒装结构。常考的放于句首引起部分倒装的含有否定意义的状语有: never, seldom, rarely, little, few, hardly/scarcely ... when ..., no sooner ... than ..., at no time, by no means, no longer, not only ... but also ..., not until, nowhere, neither ... nor ... 等。例如: Never shall I forget this lesson. 我绝对不会忘记这个教训。// Seldom in all my life have I met such a determined person. 我一生中很少遇见这样意志坚定的人。// No sooner had we reached the station than the train left. 我们刚到车站, 火车就开了。// No longer will I believe a word you say. 你的话我以后一个字也不相信了。// Not only was Churchill a statesman, but also (he was) a poet.(not only ... but also ... 连接两个句子时, 前一个句子倒装, 后一个不倒装)丘吉尔不仅是一位政治家, 还是一位诗人。// Not until quite recently did I have any idea what a guided missile was like. 直到最近我才知道导弹是个什么样子。

注意: 如果放在句首的否定状语只否定主语或句中的副词, 而不针对全句, 就不用进行倒装。例如: Not a soul was anywhere visible. 到处见不到一个人。// Hardly anybody believes that. 几乎没有人相信那件事。// Not long ago it rained. 不久前下过雨。

[考题1] I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ____ with my progress. (2006重庆)

A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied

[答案] D

[解析]题干中的but表明其后的句子应表示与“I’ve tried very hard to improve my English.”相反的意义, 即“老师并不对我的进步感到满意”。否定主句的状语by no means放于句首表示强调时, 主句应进行部分倒装, 而且不应再在句中加入否定词not, 据此可以排除A、 B、 C而选出D。

[考题2] Little ____ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. (2007安徽)

A. he realized B. he didn’t realize

C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize

[答案] D

[解析] 句首作状语的副词little本身含有否定意义, 不需另外加not, 由此排除选项B、 C; 由于句首little之后应使用部分倒装, 由此进一步排除正常语序形式的选项A而选出D。

[考题3] They have a good knowledge of English but little ____ they know about German. (2005天津)

A. have B. did C. had D. do

[答案] D

[解析] 含有否定意义的状语little(在这里little作副词)位于分句的句首时, 主句要进行部分倒装。“they have a good knowledge of English”这一分句采用的是一般现在时, 下划线处所表示的时态应与此一致, 故应填入do。

[考题4] — Did Linda see the traffic accident?

— No, no sooner ____ than it happened. (2006天津)

A. had she gone B. she had gone

C. has she gone D. she has gone

[答案] A

[解析] hardly/scarcely... when..., no sooner... than... 都表示“一……就……”, 前面的主句通常用过去完成时, 后面的从句通常用一般过去时, 而且当hardly, scarcely或no sooner放于句首时, 前面的主句应采用部分倒装。

[考题5] Not only ____ interested in football but ____ beginning to show an interest in it. (2002上海春)

A. the teacher himself is; all his students are

B. the teacher himself is; are all his students

C. is the teacher himself; are all his students

D. is the teacher himself; all his students are

[答案] D

[解析] not only... but (also)... 连接两个并列分句并且包含否定含义的not only放于句首时, not only后的分句要进行部分倒装, but (also) 后的分句不进行倒装, 因此本题应选D。

[考题6] Not until all the fish died in the river ____ how serious the pollution was. (1995)

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize

[答案] A

[解析] not... until... 表示“直到……才……”, 在为了表示强调而把否定主句的not until提至句首时, 主句要采用倒装语序(until引导的时间状语从句不倒装), 因此本题应选A。

[考题7] Never before ____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (2005上海)

A. has this city been B. this city has been

C. was this city D. this city was

[答案] A

[解析] 否定主句的状语never before放于句首表示强调时, 主句应进行部分倒装, 又因为描述的是一个与现在有关, 并对现在有影响的动作, 所以应用现在完成时, 本题应选A。

[考题8] The old couple married for 40 years and never once ____ with each other. (2003)

A. they had quarreled B. they have quarreled

C. have they quarreled D. had they quarreled

[答案] C

[解析] 并列句的后一分句把否定性状语never once放在了句首表示强调, 该分句应进行部分倒装, 又因为描述了一个与现在有关, 且对现在有影响的动作, 所以应用现在完成时, 本题应选C。

[考题9] I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never in all my life ____ so happy! (2000北京、 安徽春)

A. did I feel B. I felt    C. I had felt  D. had I felt

[答案] D

[解析] 否定性状语never in all my life放于句首时, 该句要进行部分倒装, 又因为需要表示说话人得到梦寐以求的工作之前没有这么开心过这一“过去的过去”的情况, 下划线处应采用过去完成时, 所以本题应选D。

[考题10] Never in my wildest dreams ____ these people are living in such poor conditions. (2006安徽)

A. I could imagine B. could I imagine

C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine

[答案] B

[解析] 否定性状语never in my wildest dreams放于句首时, 该句要进行部分倒装, 排除选项C、 D; never本身已经表示否定, 不应再重复使用否定形式, 因此进一步排除D而选出B。

[考题11] I have been living in the United States for twenty years, but seldom ____ so lonely as now. (2007辽宁)

A. have I felt B. I had felt

C. I have felt D. had I felt

[答案] A

[解析] 否定性状语seldom位于but之后分句的句首, 该分句应该进行部分倒装, 由此排除选项B、 C; 下划线所在的分句描述现在的情况而不是描述“过去的过去”, 因此应进一步排除过去完成时形式的选项D而选出A。

 

 考点2: “only+状语置于句首引起的倒装句”的基本用法

副词only置于句首, 强调方式状语、 条件状语、 地点状语、 时间状语等状语时, 主句要进行部分倒装。如果被only所强调的状语为状语从句, 该状语从句不倒装, 只对主句进行倒装。例如: Only in a big city was it possible to buy a new wheelchair. 只有在大城市里才能买到新轮椅。// Only when we had studied the data again did we realize that there was a mistake. 只有当我们再次研究了这些数据的时候, 我们才意识到出了一个错。// Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end. 一些预订被取消了, 他才得以买到了几张票。

  注意: 如果放于句首的only所修饰的不是状语时, 该句不用倒装。例如: Only John can save me. 只有约翰能够救我。Only some of the children passed the examination. 只有几个孩子通过了考试。

  [考题1] ____ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. (2006浙江)

  A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet

  [答案] A

  [解析] 放于句首的only修饰方式状语by keeping down costs时, 全句要进行部分倒装, 而just, still, yet都无此用法。

  [考题2] Only in this way ____ to make improvements in the operating system. (2003上海春)

  A. you can hope B. you did hope

  C. can you hope D. did you hope

  [答案] C

  [解析] only在题干中放于句首并修饰方式状语in this way, 全句应进行部分倒装。又由于该句不是介绍过去的情况而是表述现实的一种状况, 所以不应采用一般过去时, 本题应选C。

  [考题3] ____ can you expect to get a rise. (2001北京、 安徽春)

  A. With hard work B. Although work hard

  C. Only with hard work D. Now that he works hard

  [答案] C

  [解析] 题干中句子的结构显然为部分倒装语序, 四个选项中只有C选项修饰方式状语with hard work的only可以引导倒装句, 因此本题应选C。

  [考题4] Only when your identity has been checked, ____. (2003上海)

  A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in

  C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in

  [答案] D

  [解析] 放于句首的only修饰when引导的时间状语从句时, 主句应进行部分倒装(从句中不进行倒装)。

  [考题5] Only then ____ how much damage had been caused. (2006陕西)

  A. she realized B. she had realized

  C. had she realized D. did she realize

  [答案] D

  [解析] 放于句首的only修饰时间状语then时, 主句应进行部分倒装, 而且主句中“她意识到……”这一过去的动作对应的是“已导致损失”这一发生得更早的动作, 所以下划线应与后面宾语从句中的过去完成时相呼应, 采用一般过去时的形式, 据此可以分别排除选项A、 B和C而选出D。

考点3: “作状语的介词短语放于句首引起的倒装句”的基本用法

  有时为了强调而将作状语的介词短语放在句首, 而将主语放到句末从而形成倒装, 这种倒装句中的谓语多为以下不及物动词come, lie, stand, walk, 且为全部倒装的形式。例如: Under the big tree was sitting an old farmer. 大树下坐着一个老农夫。// Along the dusty road came a group of tourists. 一群游客沿着尘土飞扬的路走来。// In the distance could be seen the purple mountains. 在远处, 可见到紫红色的群山。

  采用这样的倒装形式有时也是出于全句平衡的考虑: 当主语较长时, 为了使句子平衡, 常以作状语的介词短语开头。例如: On the ground lay some air conditioners, which are to be shipped to some other cities. 地上放着一些空调, 它们会被船运到其他城市去。

  [考题1] Just in front of our house ____ with a history of 1,000 years. (2006上海春)

  A. does a tall tree stand B. stands a tall tree

  C. a tall tree is standing D. a tall tree stands

  [答案] B

  [解析] 状语前置引起全部倒装, 主语a tall tree要完全放于谓语stands之后。

  [考题2] At the foot of the mountain ____. (2006四川)

  A. a village lie B. lies a village

  C. does a village lie D. lying a village

  [答案] B

  [解析] 状语前置引起全部倒装, 主语a village要完全放于谓语lies之后。

  [考题3] In the dark forests ____, some large enough to hold several English towns. (2005辽宁)

  A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes

  C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand

  [答案] B

  [解析] 状语前置引起全部倒装, 主语many lakes要完全放于谓语lies(stand通常不与lake连用表示“存在”)之后。

考点4: “结果状语从句对应的so/such位于句首引起的倒装句”的基本用法

  当“so/such ... that ...”结构中的so, such连同它所直接修饰的成分共同位于句首表示强调时, 主句要进行倒装(that后面的结果状语从句不倒装)。例如: So angry was he that he couldn’t speak. 他愤怒得一句话也说不出来。(so与作表语的形容词放于句首, 主句呈现全部倒装的形式) // So fast does he run that he is far ahead of others. 他跑得如此快, 以至于远远领先于其他人。(so与修饰谓语run的副词fast放于句首, 主句呈现部分倒装的形式) // To such an extent do the parents love their son that they have tried to satisfy every demand of his. 父母俩爱子爱到了如此程度, 以至于尽量满足他的任何要求。(to such放于句首, 主句呈现部分倒装的形式)

  [考题1] So difficult ____ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice. (2006广东)

  A. I did find B. did I find C. I have found D. have I found

  [答案] B

  [解析] so difficult放于句首要引起主句的倒装, 结果状语从句中的“I decided to ask Tom for advice”表明整句话是针对过去的(不强调与现在的关联), 不宜用现在完成时而应采用一般过去时, 因此本题应选B。

  [考题2] ____ homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. (2006福建)

  A. So much B. Too much C. Too little D. So little

  [答案] A

  [解析] 结果状语从句中的“we had no time to take a rest”意味着休息时间很少, 应先排除选项C、 D, 又由于放于句首的表语too much不能引起倒装, 而且意思上也难以与全句融合, 所以进一步排除B。

考点99: “顺说倒装句”的基本用法

“顺说倒装句”是顺应前面所出现的表述、 表明另一种类似情况而形成的部分倒装形式的倒装句, 其基本结构为“so/neither/nor+助动词/情态动词/系动词be+主语”, 用放在句首的so(针对前面肯定性的内容)或者neither, nor(针对前面否定性的内容)表明与前面所说的情况类似的情况。例如: He can ride a bike, and so can I. 他会骑自行车, 我也会。// The boy died, and a week later, so did his friend. 那男孩死了, 一周后, 他朋友也死了。// Society has changed and so have the people in it. 社会变了, 人也跟着变了。// Tom doesn’t like bananas. Neither/Nor does his wife. 汤姆不喜欢吃香蕉。他妻子也不喜欢。// If you won’t go, neither will I. 如果你不去, 我也不去。

注意: 如果只是重复前面所说的情况, 表示同意或强调(意为“是的, 确实”), so(针对前面肯定性的内容)或者neither, nor(针对前面否定性的内容)引导的句子不用倒装, 其基本结构为“so/neither/nor+主语+助动词/情态动词/系动词be”(这里的主语应与前面句子的主语一致)。例如: She knows little English, so she does. 她英语懂得不多, 的确如此。// — It was very hot yesterday. 昨天天气很热。— So it was. 是很热。

[考题1] If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ____.(2007)

A. he will either B. neither will he

C. he neither will D. either he will

[答案] B

[解析] 表示Joe跟他妻子一样将不出席宴会, 应选用四个选项中倒装形式的“neither will he”, 选项A、 D不能选是因为“either”表示“也”而不含否定含义。

[考题2] — It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

— Yes. ____ yesterday. (2006福建)

A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it

[答案] A

[解析] 表示昨天的炎热状况跟今天的炎热状况一样, 应选用倒装句的结构, 由此先排除选项B和C, 又由于描述昨天的情况应用一般过去时而不是一般现在时, 应进一步排除D而选出A。

[考题3] — Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother?

— I don’t know, ____. (1991)

A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care

C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also

[答案] B

[解析] 在否定句表示“也”要用either(表示此意时通常放于句末), 在肯定句中表示“也”则用too(较为通俗, 表示此意时通常放于句末)或also(较为庄重, 使用时通常放于句中), 本题下划线对应于否定句, 不能用also, 所以首先排除了选项D; neither, nor表示“也不”, 本身包含否定意义, 不能与don’t连用, 所以进一步排除选项A、 C而选出B。本题中, nor引导的部分倒装的倒装句表示前面的否定性的内容也适合于另一个人, 其带上了谓语部分的实义动词care(若“顺说倒装句”中谓语部分的实义动词与前一句子谓语部分的实义动词相同, 则一般省略掉该倒装句中谓语部分的实义动词)。

[考题4] — You forgot your purse when you went out.

— Good heavens, ____. (2002上海)

A. so did I B. so I did C. I did so D. I so did

[答案] B

[解析] 重复前面表述的同一种情况, 表示强调时, so引导的句子不进行倒装。

[考题5] — Well. I do think the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal which can run very fast.

— ____.(2005辽宁)

A. So it is B. So is it C. So does it D. So it does

[答案] A

[解析] 肯定前一句话中的宾语从句“the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal”, so引导的句子不进行倒装, 而且so引导的句子中谓语动词要与该宾语从句中的谓语动词相一致。

[考题6] — My room gets very cold at night.

— ____.(2007江苏)

A. So is mine B. So mine is

C. So does mine D. So mine does

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处肯定对方所述情况、 表示“我的房间的确如此”, 应采用不倒装的形式, 而且其谓语动词形式应该与对方所说陈述句的谓语动词形式一致。

本章补充强化训练题

1. Never ____ time come back again.

A. will you lose B. will lost

C. have I lost D. am I losing

2. Not until he arrived home ____ that his wallet had been stolen.

A. he had found B. he found

C. did he find D. had he founded

3. Not until ____ home ____ his parents had been ill for three days.

A. he got; he knew B. did he get; he knew

C. he got; did he know D. did he get; did he know

4. Not for a moment ____ the truth of your story.

A. he has doubted B. he doubted

C. had he doubted D. did he doubt

5. Hardly ____ got to the airport ____ the plane took off.

A. they had; than B. had they; than

C. had they; when D. did they; when

6. No sooner ____ than he realized that he should have remained silent.

A. had the words been spoken B. the words had spoken

C. the words had been spoken D. had the words spoken

7. Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else ____ such a beautiful palace.

A. can you find B. you could find

C. you can find D. could you find

8. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ____ any end to their influence on man’s lives.

A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there

9. — He said he enjoyed the quiet life in the countryside.

— ____ and ____.

A. So did he, so did I B. So he did, so did I

C. He did so, I did so D. Did he so, so I did

10. — I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!

— ____.

A. Nor am I B. Neither would I

C. Same with me D. So do I

11. — The fish smells terrible!

— ____.

A. So does it B. So it does

C. So does the fish D. So it is

12. I failed in the final examination last term and only then ____ the importance of studies.

A. I realized B. I had realized

C. had I realized D. did I realize

13. So ____ that no fish can live in it.

A. shallow is the lake B. shallow the lake is

C. the lake is shallow D. is the shallow

 

本章补充强化训练题参考答案

1. B 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. B

11. B 12. D 13. A

注意事项!

1.         not only…but also…前后连接两个句子时,not only后的句子要用部分倒装,但but also后的分句不用倒装。

2.         按英语习惯,当never, hardly, seldom, little, few, not until, not, no, no sooner, by no means, under no circumstances等否定词置于句首时,其后要用部分

3.         否定或近似否定副词(往往是时间或频度副词,如never, rarely, seldom),或是具有否定作用的副词,如 little, on no account 等。但是,当这种副词不在句首时,当然应该用正常词序另外,有些含有否定意义的介词短语置于句首时,其后也要用倒装。(In no caseOn no condition On no accounts In [Under] no circumstances无论如何、No way )

4.         地点状语后面如有表示位置的动词 (如lie, live, sit, stand) 或转移的动词 (如come, go, rise),用作主语的名词可以放在动词之后。

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